Другие журналы

scientific edition of Bauman MSTU


Bauman Moscow State Technical University.   El № FS 77 - 48211.   ISSN 1994-0408

Classification and Methods of Shrinkage Defect Control

# 05, May 2016
DOI: 10.7463/0516.0840376
Article file: SE-BMSTU...o013.pdf (1073.66Kb)
authors: N.S. Larichev1,*, A.Yu. Kutsaya1, O.Ya. Kutsyi1, O.M. Savokhina1

1 Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow, Russia

The objective is to put forward a proposal to divide the internal shrinkage defects into the dimensional levels according to defects of certain size and shape.
The paper presents the terminology used to describe the internal shrinkage defects in the casting and shows its flaws. These include the lack of well-defined threshold size values and shape of defects. It is shown that in describing defects their sizes and shape are defined qualitatively rather than quantitatively. And it is noted that division of defects into pores and shells is based on the morphological characters.
 The paper notes that a distinct difference between defects is necessary because of different methods of their elimination from the casting body.
The paper presents an overview of control methods to determine the defects of the shrinkage nature in castings. These are methods of destructive and non-destructive testing, such as X-rays, tomography, and metallography. The paper also shows advantages and disadvantages of the considered methods of control. Based on the control method capacities it offers to divide the shrinkage defects into the three dimensional levels.
To estimate the shape of defects the paper suggests a new option, that is a shape criterion. By the example of the typical defects of each dimensional level are defined the threshold values of the shape criterion.
The paper discusses the basic techniques to estimate the porosity and offers a relationship between the defects of different dimensional levels and a porosity score and percent. It shows that the transition from a dimensional level to another one is in line with not only increasing pore size, but also with a significant deterioration of the mechanical properties of castings.
The main conclusions are as follows:
   1. At present, there is no single unambiguous classification of casting shrinkage defects in the technical literature.
   2. As follows from the analysis of the classifications of shrinkage defects, their control and estimation methods that there are three dimensional levels proposed, with each one corresponding to defects of a certain size and shape and methods of their control.
   3. A common approach proposed to estimate the castings porosity for various control methods is to define a percent of porosity.

  1. GOST 19200-80. Otlivki iz chuguna i stali. Terminy i opredeleniya defektov[Iron and steel castings. The terms and definitions of defects]. M.: IPK Izdatel'stvo standartov, 2004. 12 p. (in Russian).
  2. GOST 1583-93 Splavy alyuminievye litejnye. Tekhnicheskie usloviya. M.: IPK Izdatel'stvo standartov [Aluminum casting alloys. Specifications], 1996. 29 p. (in Russian).
  3. Voronin YU.F., Kamaev V.A. Atlas litejnyh defektov. CHernye splavy [Atlas of casting defects. Ferrous alloys]. M.: Mashinostroenie-1, 2005, 326 p. (in Russian).
  4. Lakedemonskij A.V.,. Kvasha F.S., Medvedev YA.I. et al. Litejnye defekty i sposoby ih ustraneniya [Casting defects and remedies]. M.: Mashinostroenie. 1972. 152 p. (in Russian).
  5. Rappaz M. Microporosity. 31 р. Available at: http://www.castsoft.ru/Articles/A07.files/MICROPOROSITY_rus.pdf, accessed 05.05.2016. (in Russian)
  6. Lee P.D., Chirazi A., See D. Modeling microporosity in aluminium-silicon alloys: a review. Journal of Light Metals. 2001. no. 1. pp.15-30. DOI: 10.1016/S1471-5317(00)00003-1
  7. Gulyaev B.B. Problema usadochnyh processov v metallah [The problem of shrinkage processes in metals] Usadochnye processy v metallah: sb. dokl. 3-go soveshchaniya po teorii litejnyh processov [Shrinking processes in metals: Proceedings of the third meeting on the theory of foundry processes]. Moscow, 1960. 286 p. (in Russian).
  8. Postnov L.M., Gulyaev B.B. Osevaya usadochnaya poristost' v stenkah stal'nyh otlivok [Axial shrinkage porosity in the walls of steel castings]. Usadochnye processy v metallah: sb. dokl. 3-go soveshchaniya po teorii litejnyh processov [Shrinking processes in metals: Proceedings of the third meeting on the theory of foundry processes]. Moscow, 1960. 286 p. (in Russian).
  9. Zelenov V.N., Kiselenko L.E., Majorov V.N. K voprosu formirovaniya poristosti v otlivkah lit'ya pod davleniem [On the question of the formation of porosity in castings injection molding] Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii. Mashinostroenie = Proceeding of Higher Educational Institutions. Machine Building, 1973, no. 11. pp. 168-171. (in Russian).
  10. Vozdvizhenskij V.M., Zhukov A.A., Bastrakov V.K. Kontrol' kachestva otlivok [Quality control of castings]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 1990, 240 p. (in Russian).
  11. Makarin V.S. Sredstva nerazrushayushchego kontrolya [Non-destructive testing tools] Moscow, Vysshaya shkola. 1988. 72 p. (in Russian).
  12. OST 92-1635-76. Kontrol' otlivok prosvechivaniem pronikayushchimi izlucheniyami. Metody kontrolya [Control of casting candling penetrating radiation. Control methods]. Moscow, 1977. 50 p. (in Russian).
  13. Brandon D., Kaplan U. The microstructure of materials. Control methods research(Russ. ed.: Brandon D., Kaplan U. Mikrostruktura materialov. Metody issledovaniya kontrolya. Moscow, Tekhnosfera Publ., 2004. 384 p.).
  14. Vashul' H. Practical Metallography. Sample preparation methods(Russ. ed.: Vashul' H. Prakticheskaya metallografiya. Metody izgotovleniya obrazcov. Moscow, Metallurgiya Publ., 1988. 320 p.).
  15. Nikitaev V.G., Pronichev A.N. Model' cifrovoj obrabotki izobrazhenij shlifov keramicheskih materialov dlya ocenki ih poristosti [The model of digital image processing of thin ceramic materials to assess their porosity] Sovremennye naukoemkie tekhnologii [Modern high technologies]. 2009, no. 9. pp. 114-115. (in Russian).
  16. Larichev N.S. Methods for determination of shrinkage porosity. Molodezhnyi nauchno-tekhnicheskii vestnik MGTU im. N.E. Baumana = Youth Science and Technology Herald of the Bauman MSTU, 2013, no.11, pp. 2. (in Russian).
  17. Standard Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings Up to 2 in. (51 mm) in Thickness. American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM). E 446. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 03.03: Nondestructive Testing. 1998.
  18. Standard Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled (4 ½ to 12-in. (114 to 305-mm)). American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM). E 186. Steel Castings. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 03.03: Nondestructive Testing. 1998.
  19. Standard Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled (2 to 4 ½-in. (51 to 114-mm)). American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM). E 280. Steel Castings. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 03.03: Nondestructive Testing. 1998.
  20. Carlson K., Ou S., Hardin R.A., and Beckermann C. Analysis of ASTM X-Ray shrinkage rating for steel castings. Proceedings of the 54th SFSA Technical and Operating Conference, Paper № 1.6, Steel Founders’ Society of America, Chicago, IL, 2000.
  21. Al'tman M.B., Lebedev A.A., Chuhrov M.V. Plavka i lit'e legkih splavov [Melting and casting of light alloys]. Moscow, Metallurgiya Publ., 1969, 680 p. (in Russian).
  22. Zarubin A.M. On the estimation score casting porosity. Litejnoe proizvodstvo = Foundry. 1985. no.4, pp. 15-16. (in Russian).

Publications with keywords: shrinkage porosity, testing methods, porosity range
Publications with words: shrinkage porosity, testing methods, porosity range
elibrary crossref ulrichsweb neicon rusycon

About Project
Rambler's Top100
Phone: +7 (915) 336-07-65 (строго: среда; пятница c 11-00 до 17-00)
© 2003-2018 «Наука и образование»
Перепечатка материалов журнала без согласования с редакцией запрещена
 Phone: +7 (915) 336-07-65 (строго: среда; пятница c 11-00 до 17-00)